Germinal center responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in healthy and immunocompromised individuals

Lederer K, Bettini E, Parvathaneni K, Painter MM, Agarwal D, Lundgreen KA, Weirick M, Muralidharan K, CastaƱo D, Goel RR, Xu X, Drapeau EM, Gouma S, Ort JT, Awofolaju M, Greenplate AR, Le Coz C, Romberg N, Trofe-Clark J, Malat G, Jones L, Rosen M, Weiskopf D, Sette A, Besharatian B, Kaminiski M, Hensley SE, Bates P, Wherry EJ, Naji A, Bhoj V, Locci M. Cell. Published: February 01, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.027


Fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes in humans, reveals that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces neutralizing antibody-producing germinal centers, enhanced by repeated vaccination. Conversely, in patients receiving immunosuppressant medication, this process is disrupted resulting in stunted protective immune responses highlighting issues about vaccine and booster efficacy in patients with compromised immune systems.