The Toxicology laboratory provides bioanalyses for toxins, drugs of abuse, therapeutic drugs and other specialized chemistry testing services such as 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Technology available within the laboratory includes gas- and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, and immunoassays. In addition to analytical services, the laboratory also provides pharmacokinetic interpretation and reporting for therapeutic drugs and specialized toxicologic investigations. Our largest consultative activity includes busulfan individualized dosing based on detailed subject-specific pharmacokinetic studies. This procedure is central to busulfan-based conditioning regimens in patients in preparation for bone marrow transplantation. The consultative activity linked to this procedure is performed for 30 centers across the US with rapid turnaround times of <6 hrs from receipt of the specimens that is essential to providing patient-specific dosing of this narrow therapeutic index drug. Consultation on design and analyses, both analytical and pharmacokinetic, of immunosuppressant drugs in solid organ transplants, anticancer agents in oncologic patients and antifungals in immunocompromised patients are areas of anticipated future growth.


• A national reference laboratory for busulfan pharmacokinetic testing
• A regional reference laboratory for immunosuppressive drug pharmacokinetics
• Provision of drug testing specific for the growing pain medicine programs at UPHS that includes mass spectrometry confirmatory testing in more than 95% of cases
• Design and performance of pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenetic studies in clinical trials
• Reference laboratory for unusual poisoning cases from CHOP and other Delaware Valley hospitals
• Committed to a core, teaching mission highlighting the role of laboratory toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring in modern pathology practice

find a Specialist
Michael C. Milone, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Associate Director, Toxicology Laboratory

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania 

Associate Vice Chair for Faculty Development & Academic Affairs

Leslie M. Shaw, PhD

Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Director, Clinical Toxicology Laboratory

University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine